In this paper we introduce a new definition of the first non-abelian cohomology of topological groups. We relate the cohomology of a normal subgroup $N$ of a topological group $G$ and the quotient $G/N$ to the cohomology of $G$. We get the inflation-restriction exact sequence. Also, we obtain a seven-term exact cohomology sequence up to dimension 2. We give an interpretation of the first non-abelian cohomology of a topological group by the notion of a principle homogeneous space.